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تاريخچه پيدايش نفت و صنعت نفت در ايران

نفت در زبان اوستايي به‌معني نپتا بوده و كلداني‌ها، يهودها و عرب‌ها آن را از مادها گرفته‌اند. مستشرق معروف آلماني E. Hertzfeld كه در سالهاي 1879 تا 1947 مي‌زيسته است و همچنين مستشرق انگليسي Bailey كلمه نفت را مشتق از فعل «ناب» در زبان فارسي به‌معني رطوبت.

تاريخچه پيدايش نفت و صنعت نفت در ايران

كاوشهاي باستان‌شناسي روشن ساخته است كه سومريان در حدود پنج تا شش هزار سال پيش قير را مي‌شناخته‌اند و آن را با ساير مواد مخلوط كرده و به‌عنوان ملات ضد رطوبت بين آجرها و سنگهاي ساختمان معابد به‌كار برده‌اند. به‌عنوان مثال مي‌توان به معابد چغازنبيل در حوالي هفت تپه واقع در حدود چهل كيلومتري جنوب‌خاوري شهر شوش اشاره نمود.
در دوره هخامنشيان، نفت براي روشنايي و موارد طبي و حتي در جنگها به‌عنوان يك سلاح استفاده مي‌شد. اولين كسي كه به وجود نفت در ايران اشاره مي‌كند، هرودوت مورخ يوناني مي‌باشد. براساس گفته وي در سده پنجم پيش از ميلاد، چاههاي نفت در آردريكا از توابع شوش كه در حوالي قيراب كنوني بوده، وجود داشته است كه با چرخ و مشك از آنها نفت استخراج مي‌شده است.
پس از جستجوهاي باستان‌شناسي وجود چاههاي نفتي در سالهاي6000 و 4000 پيش از ميلاد در دره فرات مشخص شده است. همچنين فيلوستراتوس گفته‌هاي هرودوت را تأييد مي‌كند و مي‌گويد كه در اين سرزمين خاك با مواد نفتي آغشته است و زراعت در آن دشوار است.
پليني نيز از چاههاي نفت پيرامون شوش سخن مي‌گويد و مي‌افزايد كه در كناره رود گرانيس كه از شوش مي‌گذرد مواد نفتي استخراج مي‌شود.
پلوتارك نيز مي‌گويد، اسكندر در پيرامون هگمتانه يا اكباتان آتش‌سوزي بزرگي، كه از منابع پايان ناپذيري شعله‌ور بوده، ديده است. به احتمال محدوده دولت ماد بود كه كرمانشاهان، لرستان و خوزستان را شامل مي‌شده است.
پليني در نوشته‌هاي خود از وجود منابع نفتي در شمال‌خاوري ايران و در سرزمين پارت نام برده است (كپه‌داغ ايران و تركمنستان امروزي).


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